System Design Overview for Bootcamp Grads

Students in software engineering bootcamp programs usually build small-scale projects that require, at most, a few weeks of work. These projects don’t have to account for long-term considerations such as maintainability, scalability, and security. But when companies build applications they have to take into account several factors.

System design is the process of designing an application or service while taking into account user needs along with the product and business requirements. There are various types of systems that you may have to design as a software engineer. But the following three are the most common ones you’ll likely work on, especially earlier in your career:

  1. Application: A full application that addresses user needs, such as a URL shortener. It’s not common for an individual to design, develop, and maintain a full application at a company (unless it’s a very early-stage startup).
  2. Application feature: A specific feature addition or modification to an existing application, such as designing the feed for a social media application. Individual contributors are generally expected to work on these. 
  3. Microservice: An application that’s not user-facing and is only used to facilitate the functioning of the overall system. For example, you may be asked to design or suggest a key-value store suitable for an existing system.

You need to consider both functional and non-functional requirements when designing any system. Let’s explore the differences between these two types of requirements using a URL shortener service such as as our example.

System Design Overview: Functional Requirements

Functional requirements define what a system is supposed to do or the specific features it must provide the users. 

A URL shortener service may have some or all of the following functional requirements:

  • Shorten URLs: The system must be able to take a long URL as input and generate a short URL.
  • Redirect: When users access a shortened URL, the system must redirect them to the original long URL.
  • Customization: Allow users to customize the shortened URL or provide an option to generate a random one.
  • Analytics: Track the number of times each shortened URL is accessed and provide analytics for users.
  • Expiration: Provide an option to set an expiration date for shortened URLs.

System Design Overview: Non-Functional Requirements

Non-functional requirements define the qualities or characteristics of the system. These include performance, reliability, and usability, rather than specific functionalities. 

A URL shortener service may have the following non-functional requirements:

  • Performance: The system should generate shortened URLs and redirect users quickly to ensure a seamless user experience.
  • Scalability: The system should be able to handle a large volume of URL-shortening requests and redirections efficiently, especially during peak usage times.
  • Reliability: The system should be highly available and reliable, with minimal downtime or service interruptions.
  • Security: Ensures that the system is secure and resistant to attacks, such as URL manipulation or injection.
  • Usability: The user interface should be intuitive and easy to use, allowing users to quickly shorten URLs and access analytics without confusion.
architectural characteristics
Source: Love Sharma

This article does a great job of explaining various non-functional requirements if you want to explore more.

When Should You Design Complex Systems?

Although it’s important to consider various requirements, tools, and technologies when designing systems, it’s equally important to not over-engineer systems. You’ll generally have some requirements guidelines when working on a team that maintains a product or service with existing users. System design interviews also have fairly good requirements (or at least the interviewer will nudge you towards desired requirements).

However, when you are developing a product or feature from scratch, it’s important to prototype quickly and gather feedback before tacking on a bunch of non-functional requirements. For example, used Google Sheets as their backend in the beginning to scope out their idea before scaling it. If you design a large-scale system without considering user needs, you’ll end up with a beautiful, scalable system that no one uses.

In general, it’s better to start with simple design, tools, and technologies before designing for scale. 

System Design Overview: Foundations

System design study resources cover tons of topics, such as scalability patterns, load balancers, and caching. But they are usually geared towards people who already have some experience with application development. 

If you’re just starting out, it’s important to be aware of a few key concepts and ideas. We’ll be covering the following topics in the remainder of this article:

  • Relevant computer components
  • Single machine problems
  • Distributed systems

Relevant Computer Components

relevant computer components

You’ll encounter various terms like Content Delivery Networks (CDN), load balancer, cache, proxy, database. All of these terms refer to a computer or a network of computers running specialized applications.

The central processing unit (CPU) is often considered the “brain” of the computer. It mainly executes instructions and performs calculations required to run programs and processes.

Random-access memory (RAM) is the computer’s short-term memory. It is usually significantly faster than long-term storage. Temporary data and program instructions for the CPU are stored on the RAM.

Storage devices provide long-term, persistent storage for data, programs, and system files. Unlike the RAM, storage devices retain their data even when the power is turned off. They also have a much higher capacity than RAM.

The components are prioritized based on the type of application being run on a computer. For example, a database will likely have a much higher storage capacity than a server that processes user requests. 

Single Machine Problems

request response cycle

You have probably designed and built a system like the above in your bootcamp program. It’s a standard structure that allows you to serve millions of users. But notice that all the requests and responses are being handled by a single server. And all of the data is being stored on a single database.

Single machines can cause issues down the road. The following are some of the issues that may crop up:

  • Performance limit: A single server can host a limited number of CPUs, RAM, or storage. If you have a lot of requests, a single server simply won’t be able to handle them.
  • Expensive component upgrades: More powerful CPUs and larger capacity RAM or storage devices can become very expensive. It’s often more efficient and cheaper to get additional systems.
  • Scalability limit: The above two issues limit the scalability of the system. The server will either stop serving requests or it’ll be too expensive to upgrade it.
  • No redundancy: If either the server or the database fails, it will cause a service outage for all of our users.
  • Low availability: Availability refers to the proportion of time that a system is functional and working. If we have to upgrade the server or the database, we would have to suspend our service. 

So how can we solve these issues? That’s where distributed systems come in.

Distributed Systems

A  distributed system is a network of multiple independent computers (often referred to as nodes or hosts) that work together to achieve a common goal. You’ll have to configure how these computers communicate with each other when designing systems. 

Although distributed systems address the issues with single machines, they introduce issues that need to be taken into account when designing systems. 

Engineer Arnon Rotem-Gal-Oz described several fallacies of distributed systems (i.e., we can’t assume the following statements are true in a distributed system):

  • The network is reliable
  • Latency is zero
  • Bandwidth is infinite
  • The network is secure
  • Topology doesn’t change
  • There is one administrator
  • Transport cost is zero
  • The network is homogeneous

You’ll learn several system design patterns to address these fallacies but they aren’t often stated explicitly in study resources.

Now that you understand the foundations of system design, you can start preparing for system design interviews. You’ll find several resources in the linked article that will provide guidance on what to study.

Interested in Learning About Software Engineering Educational Opportunities?

Are you a software engineering enthusiast considering a career transition to the field? See what Flatiron School’s Software Engineering Bootcamp can do for you. Flatiron’s graduates have been hired by such companies as Apple, Microsoft, and Goldman Sachs, to name a few. Gain the skills needed for a software engineering career in as little as 15 weeks.

Amelia Freeman: From History Major to Software Engineer

The path Amelia Freeman took to software engineering was anything but linear. Her career pursuit was driven by a persistent curiosity and a desire to create. After studying history and working in recruitment, she found herself drawn to the world of code. Inspired by a coding class in college, she decided to make a bold career change and enrolled in Flatiron School’s immersive Software Engineering program.

Before Flatiron

Amelia’s experience in recruiting equipped her with valuable communication and interpersonal skills, but she yearned for a more technical and independent career. “I wanted to do something that involved less talking to people and more working with code,” she shared. Living in Germany for a year and a half solidified her desire for a change, and she saw Flatiron School as the perfect launchpad for her software engineering aspirations.

During Flatiron

The program’s intensity surprised Amelia, but she met the challenge head-on. “The days were long, and the work was challenging,” she admits, “but I just continued to work and work, and in the end, I felt very accomplished with what I had learned and the work I had done.” This perseverance, a core value at Flatiron School, is what helped Amelia push through any obstacles she encountered during the program and emerge on the other side as a confident developer.

After Flatiron

Amelia’s dedication paid off. After 68 days, she landed her dream job as a Junior Consultant at Agineo in Germany, fulfilling her desire to work in the country she once explored. “I am most proud of my new job in Germany,” she beams. “It was a dream to work in Germany, and I’m proud I made it happen!”

Ready For A Change, Just Like Amelia Freeman?

Apply Now to join other career changers like Amelia in a Software Engineering program that sets you apart from the competition. 

Flatiron School’s immersive programs can equip you with the skills and confidence to pursue your tech dreams, no matter your background. Join a supportive community of learners and instructors, and unleash your potential to thrive in the tech industry. 

Read more stories about successful career changes on the Flatiron School blog.

System Design Interview Overview for Software Engineers

If you have looked into the software engineering interview process, you may have come across something called a system design interview. These interviews tend to be very different from the usual coding interviews.

In this post we will look at why interviewers hold system design interviews, the expectations they have for job candidates, and how to prepare for this type of interview.

But first, we need to understand what functional and non-functional requirements are in a software system and how they should be considered in the design process.

Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

Let’s say you’re building an app where users can post and share images. What functions can users perform on the app?

A user can register and sign in on the app. They can post, share, and comment on images. All of these functionalities are user-focused.

Functional requirements define the specific functionalities, features, and capabilities that the app must provide to meet the needs of its users.

But in addition to these functionalities, the app needs to perform well, be reliable, and securely store user information. Non-functional requirements describe the qualities and characteristics of the system that are not directly related to specific behaviors but are critical for its overall effectiveness.

It’s critical to consider both functional and non-functional requirements when designing and building software.

What is System Design?

System design refers to the process of designing an application while taking into account both the functional and non-functional requirements. It involves making high-level decisions and choices regarding the structure, components, interactions, and behavior of the system.

The System Design Interview Process

In system design interviews, you will generally be asked open-ended questions with vague requirements. You’ll have to collaborate with your interviewer to figure out which qualities and characteristics to prioritize while designing your system.

Unlike coding interviews—where you may have to do algorithm challenges or build apps to specifications—system design interviews have no correct solutions. You will have to justify all of your design decisions in the context of the functional and non-functional requirements while also comparing alternatives.

A typical system design interview will usually follow this format:

  • The interviewer asks the candidate to design a system
  • The candidate then does the following:
    • Clarifies requirements
    • Does back-of-the-envelope calculations
    • Establishes scope of the design
    • Defines a data model
    • Proposes a high level design
    • Defines the APIs for the system
  • The candidate and interviewer discuss details, trade-offs, and extensions

Generally, the interview is 45-60 minutes long so you won’t have time to dive deep into every aspect of the system. This is why it’s important to communicate with your interviewer about the areas you should be focusing on. For certain problems, they may ask you to focus more on the data model and what kind of database you’d use. For others, they may ask you to define your APIs in detail and describe how they would communicate with each other.

Interviewers are generally looking to assess the following skills:

  • Fundamental system design concepts
  • Requirements clarification and analysis
  • Well-reasoned decisions
  • Trade-off considerations
  • Collaboration
  • Communication

These aren’t in order of importance since different interviewers may prioritize different skills based on the job description, role level (IC3 will get easier problems than IC6), and their own experiences.

System Design Study Resources

A system design interview may seem impossible to study for since there are so many topics that can be covered. But thankfully, there are some fundamental concepts that will help you to get through most of the junior to mid-level interviews. Once you’ve got those down, you can read up on real system design on company blogs or research papers.

Below are some additional resources to help you learn how to excel in the interview:

For practice problems:

You should ideally try designing and building some complex systems yourself to see how all the pieces fit together. Starting with simple data pipelines or simple microservices may be helpful.

But the free resources (except for the books) mentioned above should give you a solid system design foundation which will allow you to understand most of the system design interview questions and walkthroughs you may encounter.

It takes time to get really good at designing systems. You will learn new concepts, tools, and techniques throughout your career which will influence your unique way of designing systems. 

For your interviews, focus on understanding the fundamentals, prepare in advance, and do practice interviews on sites like Pramp or Best of luck!

Interested in a Software Engineering Career?

Flatiron School’s Software Engineering Boot Camp can provide you with industry-ready skills in software engineering in as little as 15 weeks. You can try a free software engineering lesson, download the course syllabus to see what you can learn, or apply today.

Andrew Smit: Band Director to Software Engineer

Imagine the vibrant hum of a bustling classroom filled with instruments and eager young musicians. Now, picture the quiet focus of a coding desk, lines of code weaving digital symphonies. This is the remarkable journey of a former band director who found his rhythm in the world of software development thanks to Flatiron School.

Andrew Smit, a 2023 Software Engineering graduate from Flatiron School, is a dedicated individual with a passion for teaching music and a commitment to lifelong learning. After nine years as a public school music educator, Andrew embarked on a transformative journey at Flatiron School and successfully transitioned into a fulfilling career in Software Engineering. Let’s dive into Andrew’s story as he reflects on his motivations, challenges, and triumphs.

Before Flatiron: What were you doing and why did you decide to switch gears?

Andrew Smit spent nearly a decade as a dedicated band director, shaping young musical minds. “I was teaching 6-12 graders percussion, directing the high school drumline, and contributing to the team of band directors to help prepare concerts and teach music performance and literacy,” Andrew shared.

While passionate about teaching and music, Andrew sought a career change that could offer “more upward mobility for long-term growth, more time at home with my family, and new challenges.” The desire to leverage his existing skills in problem-solving, critical thinking, and working collaboratively with others led Andrew to the world of software development.

During Flatiron: What surprised you most about the learning process during your time at Flatiron School?

“You have to trust the process,” Andrew said, reflecting on his time at Flatiron School. Andrew underscores the significance of consistent effort, stating, “a little bit every day goes a long way, and before you know it, those little instances add up to something big.” 

From a technical standpoint, Andrew recalls being taken aback by the similarities across programming languages. “It’s surprisingly easy to pick up new languages if you focus on building a solid foundation.” The emphasis on foundational knowledge at Flatiron School laid the groundwork for a successful foray into the tech landscape.

Andrew graduated in June 2023, jumping into the job search while maintaining his attitude to hard work – that a little bit each day gets you to where you want to be. This philosophy, paired with the support of his dedicated Career Coach Peggy Osbourn, paid off. He landed his first role as a Web Developer at Square 205 and hasn’t looked back.

After Flatiron: What are you most proud of in your new tech career?

Post-Flatiron School, Andrew is putting his new development skills to use for a good cause, volunteering at Presto Assistant and contributing to a production-level codebase with other skilled developers – an achievement that he is particularly proud of. 

Andrew highlights the impact of this experience: “This not only gave me the ability to look at certain features, landing pages, and functionality and be able to say ‘I did that! I helped build that!,’ but it also gave me the confidence and skills to be more competitive in job interviews.” The tangible contributions made to his community stand as a testament to the practical skills he acquired at Flatiron School.

A Harmonious Future with Flatiron School

Andrew’s journey encapsulates the essence of growth, adaptability, and success. If Andrew’s story resonates with you, if the prospect of transforming your career harmonizes with your aspirations, it’s time to take charge!

Ready to compose your own success story?

Apply now to join other career changers like Andrew Smit at Flatiron School—a program that not only equips you with technical skills but fosters a community of growth, collaboration, and support. Read more stories about successful career changes on the Flatiron School blog, where each narrative is a note in the symphony of possibilities that await you.

Katie Behrmann: Educator to Engineer

Imagine the thrill of igniting young minds with the wonders of STEM, and then seamlessly transitioning to building and supporting the very technology that fuels that excitement. That was Katie Behrmann’s trajectory, a former STEM educator who, after Flatiron School, transformed her passion for teaching into a fulfilling career in software engineering. Her story echoes a familiar melody for many – the burnout of the education system and the lure of impactful problem-solving in the tech world.

In the ever-evolving tech landscape, Katie’s path from a dedicated STEM educator to a thriving tech professional is a tale of determination, passion, and growth.

Before Flatiron: What were you doing and why did you decide to switch gears?

Before her foray into the world of tech, Katie was an upper elementary/middle school STEM teacher, imparting foundational coding and robotics skills to her students. The spark to switch gears ignited during the pandemic when Katie transitioned to a Customer Support Specialist role at an EdTech startup. 

As she assisted users on the platform, she realized the potential of her technical skills in solving coding-related issues. This realization fueled her desire to deepen her knowledge of programming languages and computer science, ultimately leading her to pursue a career change. In her words, “I loved using my technical knowledge and skills to help users and knew that I could further those skills.”

During Flatiron: What surprised you most about yourself and the learning process during your time at Flatiron School?

Initially, Katie entered Flatiron School with concerns about balancing an educational endeavor alongside her full-time job. “I was worried about taking on another type of extra-curricular schooling outside of my full-time job,” she said “When I was a teacher, I was in a part-time grad school program that made me miserable.” However, the experience turned out to be a stark contrast to her past negative encounters with part-time programs. 

During her time in the program, Katie discovered a newfound excitement to learn, eagerly tackling coding challenges and expressing her creativity. “I was always excited at the end of my work day to solve coding challenges, build with code, and get creative,” Katie reflected. “I found the software engineering curriculum to be surprisingly fun and extremely well-structured.”

An unexpected revelation was finding herself thinking and dreaming in code—a testament to the immersive and engaging learning environment.

After Flatiron: What are you most proud of in your new tech career?

Post-graduation, Katie accepted a Technical Support Engineer role at Samsara and seamlessly translated her newfound skills into tangible contributions. “I was able to use my skills as predicted–not only in helping our users debug issues, but I was able to push feature changes to my company’s code [that] solved problems that many of our users had been contacting us about for years.”

Katie’s impact extended beyond her initial role as she navigated toward a higher-paying job and earned a more senior title at Samsara. This career journey is a testament to her dedication and the practical skills acquired during her time at Flatiron School.

A Call to Aspiring Tech Enthusiasts

Katie’s transformation from Educator to Engineer exemplifies the boundless possibilities that unfold with the right education, determination, and support system. If Katie’s story resonates with you, if the idea of shifting from education to a dynamic tech career ignites a spark within, then it’s time to make a change.

Ready to take charge of your future?

Apply Now to join other career changers like Katie in a program that sets you apart from the competition. Read more stories about successful career changes on the Flatiron School blog, where each narrative is a testament to the transformative journey awaiting you in software engineering, cybersecurity, data science, or product design. Your coding odyssey begins with a single click—take it and let Flatiron School be your guiding star.

Demystifying AI and ML: An Intro for Bootcamp Grads

ChatGPT catapulted AI tools to the forefront of the public consciousness when it reached 100+ million weekly users last year. Several more apps like ChatGPT have since been launched, such as Bing Copilot and Bard. Although these services can be helpful for software developers, most of the time they’ll use other tools or work with technologies that are in a completely different category.

Over 70% of developers are already using or plan to use AI tools in their development process according to the 2023 StackOverflow survey. The same survey shows that the overwhelming majority of developers (75%+) have a favorable or highly favorable view towards using AI tools as part of their development workflow. 

In this blog post we will be going over what developers are using these tools for, which tools they are using, and how machine learning fits into the development process in companies.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

Before we dive into what kind of technologies and processes developers use in their day-to-day work, it’s important to understand the difference between artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML).

An image of three overlapping circles labeled deep learning, machine learning, and artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence describes any computer program that performs tasks that require human intelligence, such as speech recognition, reasoning, perception, and problem solving. John McCarthy, a Turing Award-winning computer scientist and one of the founders of the AI field, said, “AI is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs.”

Machine Learning

Machine learning is a more specific term that describes a field of study concerned with the development of algorithms and statistical models that enable computer programs to perform human-like tasks. The core idea behind ML is to use large datasets to identify patterns and learn from them to perform specific tasks. IBM has a good video on the differences between AI and ML that will provide further clarification.

You may also come across the term “Deep Learning” which is a subset of machine learning. We won’t go into it here but if you’re curious, 3Blue1Brown has an excellent video on how neural networks work.

AI in Software Engineering

Software engineers or developers work with AI based technologies in two key areas: development workflow and product feature development.

Development Workflow

Development workflow refers to the processes used to plan, develop, test, deploy, and maintain software products and services. Tools like GitHub Copilot can significantly speed up these processes since they can be trained on specific codebases on top of having insights from billions of lines of publicly available repositories. Having a tool that can provide suggestions and answer questions based on the current project and context can drastically improve the developer experience. In fact, over 70% of developers say AI coding tools will allow them to write better quality code, produce more code, resolve incidents faster, and collaborate more effectively according to a 2023 GitHub Survey

The AI tools used for improving developer experience are usually available off-the-shelf. These tools still need to be trained on the existing codebase for the best results but they don’t require a significant amount of developer work hours. Developers can quickly get up to speed on the basics of these tools and start incorporating them into their workflow to boost productivity since they don’t require any specialized skills.

Product Feature Development

Companies are constantly looking to improve their products by offering novel features. Product features that incorporate advanced ML algorithms can give companies a competitive edge by providing a better customer experience. 

For example, the following diagram gives an overview of how Netflix incorporated an ML model to improve search results for users:

a diagram showing a flowchart overview of how Netflix incorporated an ML model to improve search results for users

You can read about how this model works in the “Augmenting Netflix Search with In-Session Adapted Recommendations” research paper.

A team needs to have people with various skills in order to develop and maintain a system like this since the feature may require custom algorithms, infrastructure, and code. Working on these systems usually requires knowledge of machine learning and MLOps. 

Where to Go From Here?

If you want to build AI systems and not just use AI tools, you’ll need a solid theoretical foundation and practice building applications or creating infrastructure. Here are a few free courses to get you started on your journey:

Courses for Beginners:

Courses on AI Ethics:

Practical Courses:

These should be enough to keep you busy for a while and give you a solid AI and ML foundation for building your own AI/ML products or services. 

Ready to Learn Software Engineering Foundations?

Any ML role requires a foundational knowledge of software engineering. If you are not a bootcamp grad but are ready to start your journey as a software engineer, apply now to Flatiron’s program.

Not ready to apply? Try out our Free Software Engineering Prep. Or, review the Software Engineering Course Syllabus that will set you up for success and can help launch you into a new and fulfilling career.

You can also read more stories about successful career changes on the Flatiron School blog.

Logan Miller: Technical Consulting to Software Engineer

Logan Miller, a July 2022 Software Engineering graduate from Flatiron School, spent 5 years working as a pre-sales engineer for a technical consulting firm and another year in Iceland earning a Master’s degree before deciding to switch career paths into tech.

He shares his journey from consulting to tech – with a stop in Iceland – below.

Early Exposure To Tech

Logan Miller grew up around tech. From his early childhood, it was almost always nearby, either through family or the gadgets themselves, and credits this early exposure with his interest in the field.

“Many of my closest friends are in tech, my mom was in tech, and just growing up around computers and technology had a huge influence on me,” he said. “I was like 11 and started messing around with HTML.”

It wasn’t until he was pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in European History at university that an accidental class enrollment led him to pick up formal programming for the first time. 

“When I was a freshman at Pace University I somehow found my way into a senior-level game design class (don’t ask – I barely even know how it happened),” he explained. “It was pretty daunting when I found out we were going to have to actually program things in C++ considering I didn’t even know what javascript was. I leaned on pretty much everyone I knew to get through it – friends, mom, girlfriend’s dad – anyone who knew anything about coding was sure to hear from me at random hours with random questions.”

Technical Consulting By Way Of Iceland

After graduating, Logan worked as a technical writer and pre-sales engineer for a technical consulting firm in New York. He recalls having the opportunity to work with “impressive people,” but ultimately felt that the work lacked meaning.

“I spent a lot of time working on documents that were ten, twenty, ninety pages in length just skimming for compliance reasons,” he said. “I never really enjoyed what I was doing in a way that would make me, for example, actually want to work all day on a Saturday or something.”

It was the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 that made Logan, like many others, rethink his career and path in life. Unsure of what to do next, he applied to the University of Iceland and was accepted. 

“I didn’t feel like my career was going the way I wanted it to and applied on a whim […] because it was essentially free,” he explained. “My intention with grad school in Iceland was to try a few different classes and see what stuck.”

Logan continued to work remotely for the US-based technical consulting firm while attending the University of Iceland. It was during his time in the land of ice and fire that his interest in computer science reignited. 

“Some of my friends [at the University of Iceland] were in computer science programs so I would see what kind of problems they were working on and languages they were learning. It was a lot of fun just messing around with logic and talking about the kinds of bugs and problems they ran into.”

Committing To Changing Careers

Logan left Iceland and returned to the states in July 2021 with his eye set on a career in software engineering. He highlights the field’s range of opportunities as one of the reasons he decided to pursue the field. 

“There aren’t a ton of career paths out there that allow you to land a job in almost any company or vertical, but you can find a Software Engineer who works for Whole Foods just as easily as one who works for the Department of Defense,” he said. “It allows for so much creativity and opportunity since you get people from all walks of life and interests working at places they enjoy.”

After testing the waters with a short online course in Python, Logan applied to Flatiron School’s Software Engineering program.

“I felt that I should take it seriously and make an investment into changing my career. I knew that I wanted to go all in and see how I compared to my peers in a high-paced environment.”

His Experience At Flatiron School

Logan enrolled in Flatiron School full-time and joined a cohort of other students. His classmates and the community they built together, he recalled, were his favorite part of the program.

“Hands down the best part of the Flatiron School program is the people that you spend each day with and watching them grow as programmers,” he said. “There is a real camaraderie with your cohort and you’ll be surprised at how often you’re spending late nights just talking, working, and hanging out with these people you never knew until a few weeks ago.” 

But, the accelerated course was not without challenges. The speed at which the program covered material was intimidating, Logan recalled, but manageable. 

“As long as you trust in yourself, study, and lean on your teammates and cohort instructor you will be totally fine.”

The Job Search

Logan graduated from Flatiron School’s Software Engineering course in July 2022 and jumped right into the job search. The next six months, he admitted, were difficult at times. 

“My job search [was] a rollercoaster. There will be a lot of ups, downs, hopeful moments, tragic defeats, and everything in between.”

Throughout his tumultuous job search, however, Logan had his Career Coach Tracie Mazzu to support and cheer him on.

“It’s nice to have a career coach on your side that can provide advice and a wealth of experience to help you get through everything,” he said. “I started off doubting how much I would get out of a career coach as it just seemed like an additional chore to do but once my coach helped me redo my resume it became abundantly clear that I didn’t know as much as I thought I did.”

Working In Tech

Logan accepted a Lead Developer role with My.Suit in December of 2022. So far, he has only good things to say about his new field. 

“I’m loving it. It’s awesome to be working with something that you enjoy and solving problems that no one else can. There is a ton of freedom and opportunity for you to explore and learn new things each day. The pay doesn’t hurt either.”

His takeaway from his Flatiron School experience is one of self-determination.

“Nothing in life will ever be handed to you. You need to take it and put in the time and effort to make whatever goals you have a reality. Just keep pushing and have fun!”

Inspired By Logan Miller’s Story?

Ready to take charge of your future? Apply Now to join other career changers like Logan Miller in a program that sets you apart from the competition. 

Not ready to apply? Try out our Free Software Engineering Prep. Or, review the Software Engineering Course Syllabus that will set you up for success and can help launch you into a new and fulfilling career.

Read more stories about successful career changes on the Flatiron School blog.

How Much Do Coding Bootcamps Cost in 2023?

Coding bootcamps have grown in popularity in recent years, offering an accelerated path to acquire the skills needed to pivot into a new tech career. But, what exactly are coding bootcamps? Who do they help? And – most importantly – how much do coding bootcamps cost?

What Is A Coding Bootcamp?

Put simply, coding bootcamps are intensive educational programs that rapidly teach students the programming skills needed to become full-stack web developers.

At the end of a bootcamp, students walk away with coding experience in programming languages like JavaScript, HTML and CSS, Ruby, and a strong portfolio of projects.

As for who attends bootcamps, there really is no “typical” student. They may be career changers coming from a non-technical background who want to break into tech, professionals looking to deepen their technical skills, or new participants in the workforce taking an alternative avenue to traditional university schooling. No matter where our students come from, attending a coding bootcamp helps them develop an in-demand technical skillset. 

How Much Do Coding Bootcamps Cost In 2023?

Bootcamps are more than just one-off courses — they’re intensive, often fully immersive programs. But how much does a coding bootcamp cost?

According to Career Karma, the average cost of a coding bootcamp in 2023 was $13,035. Program cost depends partially on format, with full-time options averaging $14,237 and part-time options coming in at $12,226.

‌‌Tuition At Flatiron School

Flatiron School’s tuition varies by discipline – $17,900 for Software Engineering, and $16,900 for Cybersecurity Engineering, Data Science, and Product Design. While tuition represents a significant investment, eligible applicants can apply for scholarships (Merit, Access, Women Take Tech), and may qualify for loan options to fund their education. 

While tuition certainly is a big factor to consider when choosing a further education program, we’d encourage prospective students to make a decision based on a multitude of reasons – in addition to the price tag. 

Factors to consider include:

  • Curriculum Quality. Is it reviewed by industry experts? Does it include up-to-date emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence? 
  •  Instructor Experience and Availability. Will you learn from knowledgeable, experienced professionals? Will there be continuous support throughout the learning process?
  • Program Flexibility. Is a program entirely online or remote? Do you value the in-person classroom experience, or would you prefer to log in from anywhere? 
  • Pacing Options. Can you commit to a full-time, 40 hours a week learning schedule? Or do you need more flexibility in your life? 
  • Academic Support. Are there technical coaches there to help you through a learning challenge? Or, is there an advising team to turn to if you’re struggling to adapt to the program’s demands? 
  • Career Services Support. Flatiron School graduates receive up to 180 days of 1:1 career coaching to help launch their career – support that it’s difficult to put a price tag on (but realistically, would likely cost thousands of dollars for a similar service).

When you select a bootcamp, you’re signing up for a path to the future. Choose a program that will give you what you need to succeed – in-demand skills, hands-on learning, and support both during the program and after graduation.

Coding Bootcamps vs. College‌

We mentioned that coding bootcamps were becoming an increasingly popular means of getting a technical education. However, you might wonder how they stack up against getting a computer science degree, especially once you consider the tuition of a bootcamp may roughly equal to a semester of college.

‌Some of the content may be similar, but there are fundamental differences between these two avenues, and we’ll cover some of them here.

1. Time Commitment

Most full-time students spend at least four years in pursuit of a bachelor’s degree, where they attend classes for several hours each day and commit several more in the evenings to studying and completing homework assignments.

Full-time bootcamps, on the other hand, focus on accelerated learning, which means that most of them run for 12 to 15 weeks, though that time frame can vary based on the curriculum and pacing (a part-time bootcamp will run longer).

‌Bootcamps frequently have rigid schedules, though if you need more of a part-time option, Flatiron School offers flexible pace options where a student may choose to pace themselves through the curriculum over up to 60 weeks. This is helpful for people who have other time commitments, such as a family or career outside of their education.

2. Financial Investment

There’s no comparison between the average cost of a bootcamp and the cost of a bachelor’s degree. ‌

The average price for a year in college for the 2023-2024 school year can be north of $29,150, with top-rated technology schools such as Carnegie Mellon and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) coming in at above $60,000 per year. On the other hand, even the most expensive bootcamp tops out at $30,000, though the vast majority are in the $10,000–$20,000 range. ‌

How To Pay For A Coding Bootcamp

The most straightforward way to ]pay for your education is to pay upfront. If you have the means, the advantage here is that you don’t have to think about it anymore afterward, and you can just focus on your studies.

‌Of course, not everyone can foot the bill all at once. There are several alternative ways to pay for bootcamps:

  • Scholarships. Many coding bootcamps offer scholarships that students may apply for. These are often awarded based on merit or diversity initiatives — such as scholarships for women or underrepresented minorities. You can also check for any local resources that might offer scholarships.
  • Educational loan‌s. While there isn’t much federal aid available for coding bootcamp tuition, the good news is that several private lenders offer financing to bootcamp students.
  • Payment plan‌s. Some bootcamps offer the option to pay for your accelerated learning in installments. Of course, the terms of your payment plan will differ from school to school.
  • Employer assistance. Did you know employers may offer tuition assistance? Ask your employer about their tuition assistance benefits!

What Salary Can I Expect After Graduating From A Coding Bootcamp?

At the end of the day, what really matters when selecting a coding bootcamp is the outcome – the likelihood of getting a software engineering or similar job post-graduation. While no program can guarantee a job post-graduation (unless they’re giving you one), it is helpful to look at previous graduates’ job placement rates to get an idea of what to expect.

Job Search Support

The best coding bootcamps support their students’ job searches post-graduation, and transparently report the results of those searches each year. Unless the program is new and you’re willing to take a risk, you’ll want to steer clear of bootcamps that either have low rates of job placement or have no data available. It’s a good idea to ask for a third-party verified outcomes report so that you have a clear picture of what you might expect upon successful completion of the program.‌

Flatiron School is proud to be the first coding bootcamp to put out job placement statistics that were examined by an independent third party. And, with our robust career services that offer up to 180 days of career coaching post-graduation, we’re proud to say that in our 2022 jobs report, 90% of graduates* got a job in tech.

*For job-seeking full-time and part-time graduates included in the 2022 Jobs Report, including full-time salaried; full-time contract, internship, apprenticeship, and freelance roles; and part-time roles during the reporting period. (See full Jobs Report here.)

Reported Graduate Salaries

Flatiron grads aren’t just getting tech jobs — they’re being paid well too.

Graduates of the Software Engineering program at Flatiron School boast average starting salaries higher than the national average. See the most recent jobs report for complete details.

Are Coding Bootcamps Worth It?

Coding bootcamps are phenomenal programs for developing new skills, but they aren’t for everyone.

‌Whether or not a coding bootcamp will be worthwhile for you is highly dependent on your goals and your ability to commit to the workload. However, below are some benefits and disadvantages of attending one. ‌

Advantages Of Attending A Bootcamp:

  • Develop skills quickly. For those looking to pivot to a career in tech, four years and thousands of dollars in tuition for a college degree might be too big an investment. Bootcamps teach you real-world job skills for a fraction of the cost, and in a fraction of the time.
  • Options to study while working. Many bootcamp students are already professionals in another field. They want to make a transition into a specific career — whether that be software engineering, data science, product design, or cybersecurity — but don’t have time or desire to put their current job on hold to pursue further education. The flexibility of a bootcamp makes that a possibility. 
  • Affordable tuition. While coding bootcamps do represent a sizable investment, they are much more affordable than college degrees. Even the priciest bootcamps cost less than a semester’s tuition at America’s top tech schools.
  • Career coaching included. Many top bootcamps offer career services and job search assistance to recent graduates. These offerings include anything from accountability check-ins to materials review and mock interviews. Part of landing a tech job is being prepared for the technical interview, and career coaches can make all the difference to job seekers.
  • Networking opportunities. A robust professional network is critical for any job seekers, and the good news is that bootcamp grads have one baked into their programs in the form of classmates entering a new industry along-side you.
  • ‌Develop in-demand skills‌. Where university programs might hold onto curricula that include legacy languages and out-of-date development approaches, bootcamps teach the most current and in-demand paradigms and emerging technologies (such as artificial intelligence). Starting and finishing your program within a year — or even a few months — means that there’s virtually no danger of your skills becoming outdated before you finish.

Disadvantages Of Attending A Bootcamp

  • Following a tuition payment schedule. Coding bootcamp tuition is paid either upfront or over a much shorter period than federal student loans – 5 years vs. 10 years. But, as a bootcamp tuition is far lower than even a year of attendance at many schools, the overall amount paid over the shorter time period will inevitably be lower.
  • Fast-paced learning schedule. Bootcamp programs are fast-paced, so students need to be prepared to study and work on projects for long hours to succeed.
  • Some employers prefer degree holders. There are still HR managers out there who expect candidates to have a college degree. However, many in the industry believe that bootcamp graduation is a respectable means to developing the skills required to get started in a rewarding career. 

‌No matter where you get your start, it’s important to keep learning in tech as the field evolves. Starting with a bootcamp and later going for a degree can be a viable path to advancement, though it’s just as likely – especially as opinions on university shifts – that you can learn the skills you need to move up the ladder both on the job and through learning on your own.

Ready To Get Started Learning To Code?

We covered a lot in this article, and we hope that you’re better equipped to do your research on the various bootcamps and educational paths that are available today.

But, whichever programs you’re considering, we’d encourage you to look at alumni stories and see if you can relate to their journeys. No matter where you come from or what technical level you’re starting from, a coding bootcamp can get you one step closer to your dream career. Some of our recent alumni’s journeys are below:

Apply Now to join other career changers just like these in a program that sets you apart from the competition. 

Need more time to be ready to apply? Try out our Free Software Engineering Prep and test-run the material we teach in the course.

Read more stories about successful career changes on the Flatiron School blog.

11 Best Websites to Practice Coding for Beginners in 2024

Indeed’s Best Jobs of 2023 ranked America’s most highly prized careers based on demand, pay, and potential for growth. These careers included:

  • Full-stack developer (#1)
  • Data engineer (#2)
  • Back end developer (#6)
  • Site reliability engineer (#7)
  • Director of data science (#25)

That means half of the top ten best jobs in America require coding skills‌. But, if you don’t have coding skills, where do you go to learn them?

At Flatiron School, we help pave the way for your transition into the tech industry. Our comprehensive programs are designed to provide you with the foundational knowledge you need to develop the coding and programming skills that are in such high demand. Our programs help students discover their full potential and pursue the career of their dreams.

But maybe you’re just ready to dip your toe in and explore your options? There are several coding for beginners resources online.  
So whether you’re looking to learn a new coding language or try out programming for the first time, it’s worth looking into coding practice sites for beginners.

11 Best Coding Practice Sites

Coding is not a spectator sport. It’s great to watch tutorials and read books on how to code, but to truly develop your programming proficiency, you must write the language yourself. Here are some of the best places to practice your coding skills.

1. Coderbyte

As you begin to develop your coding skills, you may be unsure what to practice first. It helps to work on real-world problems other coding professionals have faced—and Coderbyte has exactly that. With over 2,000 challenges on front and back end development, data structures, and algorithms that professionals have faced in their interviews, you’ll be able to hone your skills on examples that really matter.

Pros of Coderbyte

‌Coderbyte lets you use over 30 different programming languages and has a library of over 3 million solutions you can learn from.

Cons of Coderbyte

Coderbyte has a user interface that’s often complex for new users to navigate, so it might take some time getting used to this site.

2. Pluralsight

If you’re seeking a comprehensive learning platform that allows you to learn at your own pace, go with Pluralsight. You’ll develop a strong skill set in Python, JavaScript, HTML, and CSS, just to name a few. You can also receive learning recommendations based on what you’re focusing on.

Pros of Pluralsight

The platform provides a personalized learning experience as you can customize your training sessions with multiple features, including multiple language support.

Cons of Pluralsight

Users have minimal interaction with course instructors and industry experts, which makes it difficult to gain valuable feedback.   

3. Edabit

Unlock over 10,000 interactive coding challenges with Edabit. This free platform provides courses that are simple and practical. You can also access beginner tutorials to make the most of your learning experience. Plus, the challenges are ranked by difficulty, so you know exactly what level you’re at in your programming expertise.

Pros of Edabit

Learners gain access to a code editor that’s built into the platform. That way, users can create a code without having to switch to another application.

Cons of Edabit

You don’t gain a certificate for completing any of the tutorials. Also, some users have stated that the platform used outdated programming languages. 

4. CodinGame

Wanna play a game? CodinGame lets you practice your coding through fun games and code challenges. With single-round matches and both solo and multiplayer modes, this platform gives you a chance to practice coding the fun way.  

Pros of CodinGame

There are over 25 available programming languages.

Cons of CodinGame

Some users take issue with the size of the timers displayed on the programming tests. Unless you look carefully for the timer, you may miss the opportunity to submit your questions on time. 

5. CodeChef

Competition can be the best motivator to learn, and CodeChef offers exactly that. This platform lets users measure their skills by practicing more than 3,000 problems. You can compete against other coders, which creates great coding practice for beginners. But don’t worry—the competition is friendly, and participants often write posts and tutorials to help each other learn.

Pros of CodeChef

CodeChef users will be pleased to know that there is an active, supportive community that encourages growth. 

Cons of CodeChef

Users report that some practice problems lack clarity.

6. Project Euler

Project Euler offers a chance to solve challenging math problems with script. Over 1 million users have solved at least one problem on the site.

Pros of Project Euler

The site offers 111 programming languages.

Cons of Project Euler

If math isn’t your strongest subject, Project Euler may not be for you. The math-oriented programming languages get quite complex as you progress through the challenges.

7. TopCoder

Join a community of 1.7 million technical experts at TopCoder. On the learning side, they have an abundance of weekly challenges and explanations, along with challenging competitions that help you rise to the coding occasion.

Pros of TopCoder

The site is one of the most established platforms with an active user base.

Cons of TopCoder

Some users have experienced difficulty navigating the program’s user interface. Also, if you submit a support request, it may go unnoticed as their support system lacks efficiency.

8. One Month

Learning coding and web development in a span of 30 days with One Month. You can select from a variety of basic courses that cover HTML, Python, SQL, Ruby, and more! You also get to create real-world projects.

Pros of One Month

This user-friendly resource is great if you’re just looking to learn the fundamentals of coding and web development.

Cons of One Month

If you decide to switch to another programming platform, just note that there are no refunds available.

9. Geektastic

With detailed solutions to their multiple-choice and peer-reviewed coding challenges, Geektastic has a wealth of resources for programmers and a growing community of over 26,000 developers.

Pros of Geektastic

In addition to their interactive challenges and competitions, coders that rank high enough might even be allowed to join the review team. Members of this team get paid to review coding submissions for clients seeking a solution to their own coding projects.

Cons of Geektastic

Some users have raised concerns with how the challenges are scored, stating that they don’t reflect a candidate’s programming skills well. 

10. Geeks for Geeks

Made by developers for developers, Geeks for Geeks offers coding content for programmers of all skill levels, including beginners. Exercises in data structures, machine learning, web development, and much more are available.

Pros of Geeks for Geeks

Competitive challenges offer interactivity and a space to share coding solutions.

Cons of Geeks for Geeks

Geeks for Geeks primarily provides information in English, which means non-English speakers could run into trouble with the resources available. The website also has limited multimedia resources, mostly relying on text-based information.  

11. HackerEarth

What’s great about HackerEarth is that users can create and customize their coding assessments for technical positions. 

With HackerEarth, you’ll join a community of 7.6 million developers, participate in several programming challenges and customize your tests for a specific role.

Pros of HackerEarth

Not only does the website offer support in multiple languages, but it also includes AI proctoring to ensure exam results are accurate and reliable. 

Cons of HackerEarth

You might run into trouble navigating to specific problem types because the website has troublesome indexing and prioritization. 

Blogs to Help You Learn

They may be less interactive than competitions and online courses, but plenty of coding for beginners blogs are available to help new students gain programming proficiency. Here are some of our favorites.

1. The Crazy Programmer

This blog isn’t designed to give hands-on coding experience, but there’s a wealth of programming knowledge on pretty much everything else. From useful books and articles to tutorials and Q&As, The Crazy Programmer is a great blog to follow for those just learning to code.

2. The Blog

If you’re looking for courses or content that will grow your coding skills, The Blog will help you look in the right places. Written by a community of programming professionals, this blog is devoted to grading the most useful coding content so readers know they’re relying on quality sources. 

The blog touches on a wide range of topics, though, so those looking for resources on a specific language may find their content hit and miss.

3. Better Programming

As its name suggests, this blog is devoted to improving your programming. With posts on a range of topics in web design and coding, Better Programming features content from multiple industry pros on both introductory and advanced content. There’s truly something for everyone. As with, those concentrating on a specific topic may want something more focused.

Flatiron School: The Ultimate Coding Solution

What makes us different from coding websites? Here at Flatiron School, we work tirelessly to help students gain the foundational coding skills they need to begin a career in the tech industry. Combining flexible program options, industry-leading education, and up to 180 days of Career Coaching upon graduation, Flatiron School gives our students the jumping-off point they need to begin a rewarding tech career.  

Our programs contain a mixture of lectures, group work, instructor guidance, and community support to both equip our students with technical skills and prepare them to work effectively on a team. No matter what level a student begins at, Flatiron School’s Software Engineering program can take you from a complete beginner to industry-ready in as little as 15 weeks. 

If you’re committed to a career in tech, we’ll teach you the skills you need to succeed. 

Apply today to get started. Not ready to apply? No problem – test out our material with Free Software Engineering Prep Work or download the course syllabus.

If you’re an employer looking to bring new talent to your team, check out our tech training solutions and see how you can invest in your company’s growth. 

Software Engineer Salary by Company in 2023

Software engineering is a career that continues to be in high demand. In fact, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that demand for software developers is projected to grow 25% from 2022 to 2032 (much faster than average). In a world so reliant on digital experience, this number comes as no surprise. 

Companies of all sorts turn to software engineers to design, implement, and maintain software systems that address business challenges and client needs. With the right technical and programming expertise, software engineers can succeed while working in any industry

So, if you’re considering a career in the field you may be asking yourself – what can you expect from a Software Engineer’s salary? Below we’ll review how much engineers are paid at some of the top tech companies.

Software Engineer Salaries at 23 Top Tech Companies

Different industries have distinct organizational needs, so it’s no surprise that the average software engineer salary can vary based on the employer. Let’s look at some major corporations and the average software engineer salary* for each one.   


You can earn anywhere from $146,000 to $233,000 annually as a software engineer with Amazon. The base pay, which doesn’t account for bonuses, stocks, or commissions, averages $183,000 per year. If you have more experience, you may qualify for a Software Development Engineer II position, which earns between $197,000 and $296,000 per year.


For a multinational technology company like Apple, software engineering earnings average $145,739 per year. Junior engineers average $86,725 with the company, while those with senior-level experience earn $190,489 on average.


At Bloomberg, software engineers receive an average of $153,608 annually, which is higher than the national average in this role. An entry-level salary comes in around $62,000.

Capital One

The latest numbers show that Capital One software engineers make an estimated $139,952 annually, with top earners making as much as $205,000. Junior-level engineers can expect annual earnings of $103,000.


The average engineering salary for Cisco employees depends on the job grade. Entry-level workers earn around $111,000 per year. Those at the highest level (distinguished engineers) report up to $708,000 in total compensation, which includes stock options and bonuses.


Citadel software engineers bring home an average of $116,872 annually. The highest-salaried employees report earning $175,000.

Facebook (Meta)

Those working at Facebook (or Meta, the parent company) can expect an estimated annual salary of $207,000. This number represents the median salary and includes applicable bonuses, stocks, and commissions. As an entry-level worker, you may earn up to $189,000 annually.

Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs software engineers receive approximately $119,298 per year. This estimate is almost 20% higher than the average earnings for software engineers across other companies. As a newcomer to the company, you may earn around $85,000, although your location also plays a role in your starting salary. 


A software engineer working for the world’s most-used search engine earns an annual salary of $145,645. On average, entry-level engineers earn $95,793, while senior-level workers receive around $183,952.


In an entry-level software engineering position at IBM, average annual earnings amount to $92,043. Regardless of position level, the standard pay is $113,412 per year, with the highest earners making as much as $224,000.

Jane Street

Upper-level Jane Street software engineers report earning around $333,000 in total compensation. Those at the lower level earn between $101,000 and $156,000 per year.


The latest estimates show that Koho software engineers with at least seven years of experience can expect to earn a base salary of $122,263 per year. Those at the senior level make an estimated $138,000 annually

Lockheed Martin

At Lockheed Martin, a software engineer earns an average of $97,883 per year. On the low end, beginners make $93,190 annually, while senior engineers bring home a yearly average of $118,330.


Working for Microsoft offers an average salary of $147,129, although the exact yearly pay depends on experience level.


A software engineer employed at Netflix earns an average of $193,626 annually. Exact earnings in 2023 range from $46,000 to $444,000 per year, depending on expertise.


Oracle software engineers earn $141,515 per year on average. High-earners report taking home $277,000. At the entry-level, annual earnings still reach $76,105.


A Revature entry-level software engineer makes an average of $101,000 per year. The reported pay range for this position is $81,000 to $127,000. 


Salesforce software engineer employees report average annual earnings of $120,392. This estimate is about 20% higher than the national average of $100,260. Working in an entry-level position offers an average of $89,000 per year, while the higher-earners in the organization report making around $162,000.


The base average software engineering salary at Stytch is $136,647 per year. At the entry-level, you might earn around $126,650 each year, while executive-level or high-end earners report average annual earnings of $145,557. 


Tesla software engineers make a little over the national average, with a yearly average salary of $107,322. If you’re starting with little to no experience as an entry-level worker, your earnings may be closer to $81,000. The average salary for engineers with several years of experience is $141,000.


How much can you make at ThousandEyes? Broadly speaking, $160,717 is the average salary for software engineers. Depending on a candidate’s background and credentials, this figure can range from $67,000 to $294,000 for senior engineers.


Uber software engineers earn an average yearly income of $139,952. Beginner earnings come in at around $52,500, while high-level workers earn about $205,000. 


A U.S.-based software engineer earns an average annual wage of $105,434 at this global retail corporation. 

Ready To Become A Software Engineer?

The opportunities available to software engineers with an in-demand skillset are varied and increasing. No matter the status of the “traditional” tech industry represented by the companies listed above, every organization – no matter the industry or size – needs an engineer’s capabilities. 

But, to land a software engineering position and start earning like an engineer, you’ll need the right skillset. That’s where Flatiron School comes in. 

Our Software Engineering program takes a holistic approach to learning, teaching both the latest technologies and problem-solving techniques. We’ll teach you how to code, but also how to learn and adapt. That way, no matter what technological revolution comes your way, you’ll be ready. Whether you have zero coding knowledge, are self-taught, or are somewhere in between, this course will take you from foundational skills to industry-ready in as little as 15 weeks.

Apply now to get started on your journey to becoming a Software Engineer. 

*Salaries cited as of 19 October 2023